| Manage injuries | Wounds and blood loss | Management of specific wounds | Fractures and soft tissue injuries | Burns | Needle stick injuries | Bites and stings | Exposure to extreme temperatures |  

Apply first aid

Management of specific wounds


Foreign body in the eye
Nose bleed
Penetrating chest injury
Embedded objects
Abdominal injury
Internal bleeding


Some injuries require additional measures to the general principles.

Foreign body in the eye

Drawing of an eye with some foreign matter in it

Figure 4: Foreign body in the eye

  1. Remove any foreign bodies that can be dislodged quickly and easily with running water.
  2. Pad and bandage the affected eye(s) shut and seek medical advice.

If the foreign body is unable to be dislodged with running water:

  1. Place thick padding above and below the eye.
  2. Do not place any direct pressure over the eye or the foreign object.
  3. Bandage the pads in place and, if possible, close the affected eye.
  4. Lay the casualty flat on their back and keep their head stable.
  5. Seek urgent medical help, severe eye injuries are a medical emergency.

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Nose bleed

Drawing of a gloved hand holding the nose of a woman

Figure 5: Nose bleed

  1. Lean the person forward.
  2. Pinch the soft part of the nose, just below the bone for at least 10 minutes.
  3. Apply a cold compress to the back of the neck, the forehead, or the bridge of the nose.
  4. If heavy bleeding continues, seek medical advice.

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Penetrating chest injury

Drawing of a man’s chest with blood coming from a wound

Figure 6: Penetrating chest wound

This might be the result of a gunshot or stab wound that has penetrated the chest wall and damage to the internal organs (lungs and heart) may have occurred. There might be a hole in the chest with a ‘sucking’ sound that is heard when the casualty breathes.

If the casualty is conscious:

  1. Call 000 or 112 (digital mobile).
  2. Place the casualty in a position of comfort (usually half sitting and leaning towards the injured side).
  3. Place an airtight dressing over the wound hole and secure the dressing on 3 sides, leaving the bottom edge open.
  4. If breathing becomes more difficult after application of the dressing, immediately remove the dressing.
  5. Closely monitor signs of life.

If the casualty is unconscious:

  1. DRABCD and call 000 or 112 (digital mobile).
  2. Place the casualty in the recovery position, laying on the injured side.
  3. Closely monitor signs of life.

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Embedded objects

Drawing of a hand with a piece of broken glass through it

Figure 7: Embedded objects

  1. Do not remove the object.
  2. Immobilise the object in the current position using a ring bandage or other method.
  3. Keep the area rested.
  4. Apply pressure around the object to control bleeding.
  5. Do not apply direct pressure over the object.
  6. Seek medical advice or call 000.

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Drawing of a hand with the top of the little finger lying beside

Figure 8: Amputation

  1. Manage the casualty’s bleeding with a firm pressure bandage and elevation. Do not clean the damaged area as this may cause further damage.
  2. Place the amputated part in a sealed plastic bag or container.
  3. Place the plastic bag or container in water with ice.
  4. Do not allow the amputated part to come in direct contact with the water or ice.
  5. Manage shock and provide reassurance.
  6. Call for help as soon as possible.
  7. Ensure that the amputated part is transported to the hospital with the casualty.

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Abdominal injury

Any injury to the abdomen could cause vomiting of blood or a brown substance (old blood), abdominal pain, bruising and swelling. This requires immediate medical attention because it could mean damage to internal organs.

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Internal bleeding

Internal bleeding should always be suspected after an injury. It is difficult to recognise, but there are symptoms and signs.

Management of internal bleeding (general principles)

  1. DRABCD and call 000 or 112 (digital mobile) as possible.
  2. Rest the casualty.
  3. If possible lay the casualty down and elevate his or her legs.
  4. Closely monitor signs of life.
  5. Provide reassurance.
  6. If the casualty is unconscious, place him or her in the recovery position.
  7. Closely monitor signs of life.
  8. Assess for and manage shock.

Caution — Internal bleeding DO NOT give anything to eat or drink.

Activity 1

In this activity you will revise the different types of wounds and bleeding.

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